Hygiene of populated placesISSN: 2707-0441 eISSN: 2707-045X
Issue 71, 2021   -   Pages: 48-57
O. Turos1, A. Petrosian1, V. Morhulova1, T. Maremukha1

: 614.71:351.777:504.06

Objective: develop, evaluate and establish perspective and current technological standards for permissible emissions (TSPE) of pollutants using methodical approaches of human health risk as-sessment methodology and analyzed the conclusions for the best available technologies and management methods (BAT) recommended by the EU.
Materials and methods: perspective and current technological standards for permissible emissions of pollutants and developed the conclusions for the best available technologies and management methods (BAT; recommended by the EU); mathematical modelling of air pollution; human health risk assessment; cartographic methods using geographic information systems (GIS; ArcGis 10.0) and Earth remote sensing data (remote sensing; space images).
Results. The main requirement for achieving management goals in the field of air protection to secure exposure population and climate change prevention is the establishment and achievement TSPE of pollutants by industrial enterprises. Draft Law On Prevention, Reduction and Control of Industrial Pollution envisages changing the concept on emission standardization for many industries by gradually implementing the BAT conclusions (European sectoral documents BATs and BREFs). However, most existing TSPE in Ukraine for various production processes, were developed without taking into account human health impact assessments and do not give an objective assessment on the feasibility of achieving them from the standpoint of maintaining human health in certain areas.
Conclusions. In performed research, the current and perspective TSPE of the pollutants and conclusions of the best available technologies and management methods (BATs recommended by the EU) for different types of equipment were developed and evaluated with the help of the hygienic approaches. The impossibility of the implementation (without taking into account the health effect assessment) of the BAT conclusions, approved and recommended by the EU, is shown. This is due to the specificity (effects of potentiation and summation of pollutants; background concentrations) of industrial air pollution and stricter requirements to the standardization of its quality in Ukraine. Based on the conducted research and the results of risk assessment, five TSPE for the equipment (installations) for different types of productions were established and agreed.

air pollution, pollutant, exposure, technological standards of permissible emissions, human health risk assessment, risk management.

1. Pro Osnovni zasady (stratehiiu) derzhavnoi ekolohichnoi polityky Ukrainy na period do 2030 roku: Zakon Ukrainy vid 31.03.2019 r. 2697-VIII [On the Basic Principles (Strategy) of the State Environmental Policy of Ukraine for the Period up to 2030: Law of Ukraine of March 31, 2019 2697-VIII] (in Ukrainian).
2. Pro okhoronu navkolyshnoho pryrodnoho seredovyshcha: zakon Ukrainy vid 25.06.1991 r. 1264-XII [On Environmental Protection: the Law of Ukraine of 25.06.1991 1264-XII]. Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy [Bulletin of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine]. 1991 ; 41 : 546 (in Ukrainian).
3. Pro okhoronu atmosfernoho povitria : zakon Ukrainy vid 16.10.1992 r. 2707-XII [On the Protection of Atmospheric Air: the Law of Ukraine of 16.10.1992 2707-XII]. Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy [Bulletin of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine]. 1992 ; 50 : 678 (in Ukrainian).
4. Pro zatverdzhennia Instruktsii pro zahalni vymohy do oformlennia dokumentiv, u yakykh obgruntovuiutsia obsiahy vykydiv, dlia otrymannia dozvolu na vykydy zabrudniuiuchykh rechovyn v atmosferne povitria statsionarnymy dzherelamy dlia pidpryiemstv, ustanov, orhanizatsii ta hromadian pidpryiemtsiv: Nakaz Ministerstva okhorony navkolyshnoho pryrodnoho seredovyshcha Ukrainy vid 9.03.2006 r 108 [About the Statement of the Instruction on the General Requirements to Registration of Documents in which Substantiate Volumes of Emissions, for Reception of the Permission for Emissions of Polluting Substances in Atmospheric Air by Stationary Sources for the Enterprises, Establishments, the Organizations and Citizens - Businessmen: the Order of the Ministry of Environmental Protection of Ukraine from 9.03.2006 108]. Ofitsiinyi visnyk Ukrainy [Official Gazette of Ukraine]. 2006 ; 13-14 : 391-250 (in Ukrainian).
5. Pro zatverdzhennia poriadku rozroblennia ta zatverdzhennia normatyviv hranychnodopustymykh vykydiv zabrudniuiuchykh rechovyn iz statsionarnykh dzherel: Postanova Kabinetu Ministriv Ukrainy vid 28.12.2001 r. 1780 [On Approval of the Procedure for Development and Ap-proval of Standards for Maximum Permissible Emissions of Pollutants from Stationary Sources: Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of 28.12.2001 1780]. Ofitsiinyi visnyk Ukrainy [Official Gazette of Ukraine]. 2002 ; 1 ; 9 : 84 (in Ukrainian).
6. Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 November 2010 on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control). Official Journal of the Euro-pean Union. 2010 ; L 334 : 119 p.
7. Turos O.I., Chernenko L.M., Petrosian A.A. Sposib rozrobky tekhnolohichnoho normatyvu dopustymykh vykydiv vuhletsiu oksydu vid ahlomeratsiinykh mashyn pidpryiemstv hirnycho-metalurhiinoho kompleksu Ukrainy [Method for Development of Technological Standard of Admissible Emissions of Carbon Monoxide from Sintering Machines of Enterprises of Mining and Metallurgical Complex of Ukraine]. In : Hihiiena naselenykh mists [Hygine of Populated Places] : Kyiv. 2015 ; 66 : 36-44 (in Ukrainian).
8. Petrosian A.A. Naukove obgruntuvannia systemy hihiienichnoi otsinky yakosti atmosfernoho povitria : avtoref. dys. dokt. b. nauk : spets. 14.02.01 - Hihiiena ta profesiina patolohiia [Scientific Substantiation of the System of Hygienic Assessment of Atmospheric Air Quality: Extended Abstract of Doctors Thesis: Special. 14.02.01 - Hygiene and Occupational Pathology]. Kyiv. 2021 ; 41 p. (in Ukrainian).
9. AERMOD. URL : https://www.enviroware.com/aermod/ https://www.enviroware.com/aermod/
10. US EPA. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Man-ual (Part A). EPA/540/1-89/00. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. Washington, DC, USA, 1989. URL : https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-09/documents/rags_a.pdf
11. US EPA. Human health risk assessment. URL : https://www.epa.gov/risk/human-health-risk-assessment
12. Otsinka ryzyku dlia zdorovia naselennia vid zabrudnennia atmosfernoho povitria: metodychni rekomendatsii. MOZ : nakaz 184 vid 13.04.2007 r. [Risk Assessment for Public Health from Air Pollution: Guidelines. Ministry of Health: Order 184 from 13.04.2007]. Kyiv. 2007 : 28 p. (in Ukrainian).
13. Pro zatverdzhennia hihiienichnykh rehlamentiv dopustymoho vmistu khimichnykh i biolohich-nykh rechovyn v atmosfernomu povitri naselenykh mists: nakaz MOZ Ukrainy vid 14.01.2020 r. 52, zareiestrovano v Ministerstvi yustytsii Ukrainy vid 10.02.2020 r 156/34439 [On Ap-proval of Hygienic Regulations of Permissible Content of Chemical and Biological Substances in the Air of Populated Areas: Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine Dated 14.01.2020 52, Registered in the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine Dated 10.02.2020 156/34439]. Ofitsiinyi visnyk Ukrainy [Official Gazette of Ukraine]. 2020. 15 ; 608 : 20 (in Ukrainian).

Turos O., Petrosian A., Morhulova V., Maremukha T. Obgruntuvannia ta rozroblennia tekhnolohichnykh normatyviv dopustymykh vykydiv promyslovykh pidpryiemstv z vykorystanniam metodolohii otsinky ryzyku dlia zdorovia naselennia [Justification and Development of Technological Standards for Permissible Emissions of Industrial Enterprises Using the Human Health Risk Assessments Methodology]. In : Hihiiena naselenykh mists : zb. nauk. pr. [Hygiene of Populated Places]. Kyiv ; 2021 ; 71 : 48-57 (in Ukrainian).