Hygiene of populated placesISSN: 2707-0441 eISSN: 2707-045X
Issue 70, 2020   -   Pages: 7-22
A.M. Serdyuk1, N.S. Polka1, V.M. Makhnyuk1, M.Y. Antomonov1, N.P. Pavlenko1, I.O. Chernichenko1, I.P. Kozyarin2, O.P. Ivakhno2, N.V. Lebedinets3

: 613.95:727/1

The purpose of the work is to substantiate the hygienic criteria of architectural and planning decisions of the educational space to ensure sanitary and epidemiological conditions of life of primary school students. Taking into account foreign experience.
The conducted researches allowed:
- to identify, in a retrospective analysis of the provision of the child population schools I, I-II, I-III degree, reducing the number of schools for 30 years by 30% and increasing the number of students only in the last three years by 323 thousand, which dramatically increased the burden on existing schools;
- identify violations of the principle of proportionality of construction of new residential build-ings and the required number of schools for residents of new buildings, according to which new schools are not built, which leads to the use of schools located above the regulatory distance and causes their excess capacity;
- to establish that in Ukraine the norm of the territory of school grounds for pupils of primary school age is 2-4 times less, than in other European countries;
- to establish that sanitary normative distances between the educational institution and adjacent residential and public buildings were observed in 91% of rural school projects, while in urban ones only in 71%, which caused compaction of the settlement territory;
- to determine in modern educational programs the absence of need in the territories of training-production and training-research zones (training grounds, research sites, greenhouses, geographical areas, etc.) and to recommend their use in sports, play and recreation zones in functioning schools;
- to substantiate the need to take into account the territories of training and research and training and production areas in the design of specialized schools;
- to determine that every third city school functioned with exceeding the normative indicator on class size by more than 23%, which leads to congestion of students and deterioration of sanitary and hygienic conditions and living conditions in schools;
- to establish that the norms of natural air exchange during education are not observed and amount to 9 m3/h per child (if necessary 16 m3/h), which does not ensure air quality in the classroom and affects the deterioration of health and reduced efficiency of students;
- to establish that for the implementation of the concept of a new Ukrainian school in the func-tioning schools there is a deficit of the area of the educational premises of the primary school in 16%;
- to identify in the daily routine of students of grades 1-4 in 30% of cases the replacement of active motor games in the open air with activities with static mode ("sitting" mode) by increasing the duration of homework and attending extracurricular activities with extracurricular activities;
- to establish the existence of close relationships between direct and indirect indicators of architectural and planning decisions, which are part of the formation of educational space, and the determinants of health of primary school students;
- to substantiate a set of preventive measures and proposals for the Ministry of Education and Science, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Regional Development in order to prevent the development of "school" occupational diseases of primary school students at the design stage of new and reconstruction of existing schools.

Institutions of general secondary education, provision of the population of schools, pupils of primary school age, sanitary, educational and town-planning legislation of Ukraine and EU countries.

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