Hygiene of populated placesISSN: 2707-0441 eISSN: 2707-045X
Issue 71, 2021   -   Pages: 94-104
I.V. Kakura1, A.I. Kostenko1, G.A. Trakhtengerts1

: 614.7:[622.32+622.6]:662.74

Goal. Sanitary and hygienic assessment of the actual indicators of the impact of the waste heap located near the settlement on the environment with the determination of the hazard class of waste and the establishment of the possibility of reducing the sanitary protection zone.
Objects and methods of research. Facilities - waste heap, coal beneficiation waste and operating conditions of the facility. Industrial waste was assessed by toxicological and radiological indicators in compliance with sanitary-chemical and radiological laboratory tests and the calculation of the hazard class. The assessment of the conditions of maintenance and operation of the object was performed by the method of hygienic analysis taking into account the peculiarities of the impact on the environment and data of field measurements of the territorial department of the laboratory center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine.
Research results and discussion. The dump is located in the northern part of the city of Dobropillia within the industrial zone, it is a necessary structural element of the coal preparation plant. The area of the facility is 52 hectares, it has been in operation since 1952. Waste of gravitational con-centration of coal is removed to the facility in the amount of 1800 thousand tons/year, the volume of the dump is projected - 4040 thousand m3. The maximum height of the existing facility is 98.6 m, the foot area is 520 thousand m2, the slope angle is 35 degrees. According to the passport of the waste disposal site, the enrichment waste contains ash (83.53%) and sulfur (1.21%), the bulk density of the mass is 1.9 kg/m3. The dump, according to the results of surveys and temperature surveys, is non-combustible. In 2017, the operation of the dump was stopped due to overflow and the need to expand the facility arose. Expansion is envisaged in a northern direction to an area of 26.96 hectares, since on the other sides the object is limited to industrial facilities and agricultural shares. The new dump will consist of 4 tiers with a height of 10 m, total height - 41 m, including a meter cover and landscaping of the upper tier. At the same time, it became necessary to resolve the issue of the conditions for the placement and further operation of the facility next to the existing residential development. The nearest housing is located in a forest belt at a distance of 65 m to the north and 365 m to the west from the border of the new part of the dump. According to State Sanitary Regulations 173-96, the standard size of the SPZ for waste dumps that are not subject to combustion with a height of more than 50 m is 500 m, and at a height of up to 50 m - 300 m.
Based on the results of the sanitary and epidemiological assessment of large and small frac-tions of waste (cake), the main toxicological and radiological indicators and their certain hazard class were established. The study found that when assessing acute toxicity and the calculated coeffi-cient (305.93), the waste of large fractions of the rock is characterized by the 4th category of toxicity (300 Such indicators suggest that when handling waste it is necessary to comply with the conditions of safe handling with the use of PPE, and when stored outdoors, first of all, to prevent dust formation. Sanitary and hygienic assessment of the probable impact of the dump on the environment was per-formed on the basis of calculated indicators of dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere and field studies of environmental objects performed by the territorial branch of the laboratory center of the Ministry of Health. Calculations account for the absence of excess air pollution standards for existing residential buildings, which is confirmed by field measurements. The indicators of the exposure dose rate of gamma radiation in the area near the dump are comparable with the natural radioactive background, ensuring that the effective dose rate of the population is not exceeded. Concentrations of pollutants in the soils of the surrounding area are below the normative values. The Noise generated by technician at the dump, due to natural elevation changes and shielding by dams and green spaces, does not spread further than 100 m from the sources of formation and there are no exceeding the norms at this distance. Thus, during operation, the facility will create an impact on the environment within the permitted values, which meets the requirements of sanitary rules not to exceed the maximum concentration limit at the outer boundary of the SPZ, facing the housing. The facility provides waste storage technology with preliminary creation of dams, removal of waste in a wet state with a loam coating, which minimizes the processes of dust emissions and prevents internal combustion. It is planned to create additional maximum landscaping of the SPZ and the old part of the dump.
conclusions. It is recognized that the facility provides a sufficient number of compensatory measures to minimize the impact on the living conditions of the population. To ensure further operation of the factory based on the study of all aspects of activity and the absence of excessive impact for the new part of the dump was installed SPZ size 65 m in the northern direction and 300 m in all other directions, and for the old part of the standard 500 m SPZ. However, such objects are different both in terms of location in relation to the existing residential development, and in the composition of waste (the ratio of the content of toxicants), therefore, the solution to the issues of expanding the dumps and adjusting the size of the sanitary protection zone for them should be resolved in each specific case with mandatory sanitary epidemiological assessment of the reliability of anthropogenic impact by all factors on the state of the environment and public health.

dump, coal preparation waste, acute toxicity, impact indicators, category (class) of danger, sanitary protection zone.

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Kakura I.V., Kostenko A.I., Trakhtengerts G.A. Sanitarno-hihiienichni problemy umov utrymannia vidvaliv vidkhodiv vuhlezbahachennia [Sanitary and hygienic problems of the conditions of maintenance dumps of coal preparation waste]. In : Hihiiena naselenykh mists : zb. nauk. pr. [Hygiene of Populated Places]. Kyiv ; 2021 ; 71 : 94-104 (in Ukrainian).